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Referencing with Harvard

The Basic recipe

Every type has its own set of guidelines to follow, called a reference format.

 

How to start:

1. First define your source type.

2. Look for it’s reference format.

3. Fill in the format.

4. Check for variations on the basic reference format.

Expanding the recipe

Page number

  • Referencing a single page:  use p. xx
  • Referencing a range of pages: use pp. xx-xx   Example: Berlo (2021, pp. 12–16)
 

No page number for a quote

  • Electronic documents, don’t always offer a page number. For an e-book, it is possible to refer to the printed version, instead of the e-book.
  • In that case you cannot add a page number.
  • You are allowed to use a paragraph number or subheading instead, if possible.
  • No paragraph number? Count from the beginning of the document.
    Example: Institute of Hospitality (2018, para. 4) states that...  or  Bergs et al. (n.d., under ‘The reference list’) states that …

Number of authors

Include all authors in the order they appear in the document. Use an and to link the last two multiple authors.

Use the full name on your reference list.

Some documents have very large numbers of authors, particularly in certain disciplines. There may be a very large numbers of authors and a wish not to include them all in a reference list. In these cases it is recommended that advice from the Faculty is sought, to establish if it is permitted to cite only a reduced number. (ARU University Library, n.d.)

Author type Paraphrase Quote
1 author White (2004) White (2004, p. 18)
2 or 3 authors White and Brown (2004) White, Brown and Yellow (2004, p.18)
4 or more authors White, et al. (2004) White, et al. (2004, p. 18)
Corporate author Institute of Hospitality (2004) Institute of Hospitality (2004, p. 18)
Abbreviations
You may use standard abbreviations, in your text. Use the full name at the first citing with the abbreviation in brackets and the abbreviation at the second citing:
  • Example 1st citing: research undertaken by the Institute of Hospitality (IoH) (2018) has shown that ...
  • Example 2nd citing: research undertaken by the IoH (2018) has shown that … 

Corporate authors
If there is no personal author, you can refer to the organization name. Such as names of publications by institutes, committees, associations, companies, government departments etc. For instance, Institute of Hospitality or Committee on Risk Management.

No publication date 
Use n.d. instead.
 
Examples
 

Bergs (n.d., p. 4) states “For different types of sources (for example books, journal articles, or web pages), there are different formats to use in the reference list”.

“For different types of sources (for example books, journal articles, or web pages), there are different formats to use in the reference list” (Bergs, n.d., p. 4) .

Types of sources

Basic format for a book

Author, Initials., Year. Title of book. Edition. Place of publication: Publisher.

Include the edition only if this is not the 1st edition. Place of publication is a town or city, not a country.

 

Example

Bell, E. Bryman, A. and Harley, B. 2019. Business Research Methods. 5th ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Basic format for an e-book

Author, Initials., Year, Title of book. [e-book] Place of publication: Publisher. Available through: BUas Library website <http://www.buas.nl/library> [Accessed date].

or

Author, Initials., Year, Title of book. [e-book] Place of publication: Publisher. Available through:  <URL of the library database> [Accessed date].

 

Example

Charalampos Giousmpasoglou et al. 2022. Managing People in Commercial Kitchens: A Contemporary Approach. [e-book] Abingdon, Oxon: Routledge. Available at: https://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=nlebk&AN=3038535&site=ehost-live&scope=site (Accessed: 20 May 2022).

Basic format

Author, Initials., Year. Title of article. Full Title of Journal, Volume number (Issue/Part number), Page number(s).

Use this for articles in print or for online articles that have an equivalent in print. 

 

Example

Ye, Q., Law, R., Gu, B. and Chen, W., 2011. The influence of user-generated content on traveler behavior: An empirical investigation on the effects of e-word-of-mouth to hotel online bookings. Computers in Human Behavior, 27(2), 634-639

Basic recipe
Author, Initials., Year. Title of article. Full Title of Journal, [e-journal] Volume number (Issue/Part number), Page numbers if available. DOI.
 
Instead of the location/access date, you can use the Digital Object Identifier (DOI). This is a permanent identifier.

 

Example

Jackson, C. and Orr, A., 2021. The embeddedness of sustainability in real estate investment decision-making. Journal of European Real Estate Research, [e-journal] 14(3), pp. 362-380. https://doi-org.proxy1.dom1.nhtv.nl/10.1108/JERER-09-2020-0050

Kim, C. and Chung, K. 2022. Measuring customer satisfaction and hotel efficiency analysis: An approach based on data envelopment analysis. Cornell Hospitality Quarterly, [e-journal] 63(2), pp. 257–266. https://doi: 10.1177/1938965520944914.

Basic recipe

For articles accessed through a password protected database from Breda University Library:

Author, Initials., Year. Title of article. Full Title of Journal, [type of medium] Volume number(Issue/Part number), Page numbers if available. Available through: BUas Library website <http://www.buas.nl/library> [Accessed date].

or

Author, Initials., Year. Title of article. Full Title of Journal, [type of medium] Volume number(Issue/Part number), Page numbers if available. Available through:  <Url of the library database> [Accessed date].

 

Example

Lee, D.S., 2022. Case study: What does diversity mean in a a global organization? Harvard Business Review, [e-journal] 110(3), pp.148-153. Available through: <https://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=bsu&AN=156257991&site=ehost-live&scope=site> [20 May 2022].

Geertgens, E. 2022. The future of workspace: What comes next? FMJ Magazine, [e-journal] 32(1), pp. 22-24. Available through: <http://fmj.ifma.org/publication/?m=30261&i=733359&p=24&ver=html5> [20 May 2022].

Basic recipe
 
Authorship or Source, Year. Title of web document or web page. [type of medium] (date of update if available) Available at: include web site address/URL [Accessed date].

 

Example

NHS Evidence, 2003. National Library of Guidelines. [online] Available at: http://www.library.nhs.uk/guidelinesFinder [Accessed 10 October 2009].

Basic recipe

Authorship or Source, Year. Title of document. [pdf] Place of publication (if known): Publisher. Available at: include web address/URL [Accessed date].

 

Example

Kastle System, 2021. Kastle SafeSpaces: Leveraging technology can ensure a safer re-entry into the workplace in the covid-19-era. [pdf] Kastle System. Available at: <http://community.ifma.org/knowledge_library/m/free_fm_content/1058618?baseID=0&categoryID=0> [Accessed 20 May 2022]. 

Morris, E., 2019. Addressing Food Waste: Case Studies for the Hospitality Industry. [pdf] Surrey: Institute of hospitality. Available at: <https://www.instituteofhospitality.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/02/Food-Waste-Case-Studies-Guide-2019-A4.pdf > [Accessed 20 May 2022].

UNWTO, 2022. World tourism Barometer. [pdf] Madrid: UNWTO. Available at: <https://www.e-unwto.org/doi/epdf/10.18111/wtobarometereng.2022.20.1.> [Accessed 20 May 2022].

These instructions relate to sources in a language other than English that have been translated by you or another.

You should always check with academic staff who are setting assignments before using non-English sources as evidence in your University work.‚Äč 

This information is based on the LibGuide made by Bournemouth University on Translated Materials (non-English sources). More examples can be found there. 

Visit ARU Library website for other reference formats.