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Information Skills Toolbox

Citation Styles

In the academic world there are strict rules for setting out source references. Each discipline has its own citation style. Also, references are set out differently depending on whether you use them in a bibliography, in the text itself, in a footnote or in an endnote. During your study you will learn which citation styles should be used for your discipline. 

Beneath you will find some examples of citation styles, referring to a journal article in this case: 

APA-style:

HAUCK, MARKUS. (November 01, 2009). Global warming and alternative causes of decline in arctic-alpine and boreal-montane lichens in North-Western Central Europe. Global Change Biology, 15, 11, 2653-2661.

Chicago-style:

HAUCK, MARKUS. 2009. "Global warming and alternative causes of decline in arctic-alpine and boreal-montane lichens in North-Western Central Europe". Global Change Biology. 15 (11): 2653-2661.

Harvard-style:

HAUCK, M. 2009, "Global warming and alternative causes of decline in arctic-alpine and boreal-montane lichens in North-Western Central Europe", Global Change Biology, vol. 15, no. 11, pp. 2653-2661.

MLA-style:

HAUCK, MARKUS. "Global Warming and Alternative Causes of Decline in Arctic-Alpine and Boreal-Montane Lichens in North-Western Central Europe." Global Change Biology. 15.11 (2009): 2653-2661. Print.

APA